Delaware Indians History & More




Delaware had split into two groups: those in the west along the upper Ohio River; and the Munsee and about one-third of the Unami who had remained on the upper Susquehanna or the Wyoming Valley in the east.


Pennsylvania seized and hanged a Delaware-Shawnee delegation sent to protest the Iroquois sale of Ohio; Delaware and Shawnee attacks on the Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia frontiers followed
1755Munsee attacked the Moravian mission at Gnadenhuetten (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) massacring 11 missionaries; the Delaware and their allies began attacking the frontiers of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York; colonial militia under Colonel John Armstrong attacked and burned the principal Delaware village of Kittaning on the Allegheny River, most escaped
1757Munsee raided Orange and Duchess Counties in New York and the frontier in northern New Jersey

Munsee attacked Walpack, New Jersey; Second Treaty of Easton provided for payments for the Munsee and Pompton lands taken by New Jersey without compensation; a 3,000 acre reservation at Brotherton

1759Fort Pitt Treaty, the Delaware were holding more than 600 white prisoners at a Caughnawaga (Christian Iroquois) village on the Ohio River, almost half of the white captives refused repatriation and stayed with the Delaware and Shawnee
1761Delaware Prophet, Neolin (The Enlightened) from a village near the Ohio River, rged the rejection of the white man's trade goods (especially rum) and a return to traditional native culture and values; his teachings gained a large following among the Delaware and Pontiac of the Ottawa
1763Ottawa were French allies, Pontiac's acceptance of Neolin's new religion provided a basis for the Delaware, Shawnee and Mingo to unite with the tribes of the French alliance against the British in what has been called the Pontiac Conspiracy; the rebellion captured nine of the twelve British forts west of the Appalachians; Delaware, Shawnee, and Mingo surrounded Fort Pitt cutting if off from the outside world and then attacked the Pennsylvania frontier killing 600 colonists; tribes at Fort Pitt given smallpox laden blankets [?] starting epidemic; a bloody two-day battle at Bushy Run just east of Pittsburgh, Colonel Henry Bouquet defeated a Delaware, Shawnee, and Mingo ambush and reached Fort Pitt; settlers burned a Delaware village in Wyoming Valley; a Delaware party then killed 26 colonists near Allentown; 140 Christian Delaware were confine to a warehouse for more than a year with 56 dying of smallpox
1764Preliminary peace treaty at Presque Isle (Erie, PA); the British rejected the treaty until Delaware and Shawnee signed a peace with the British at Coshocton and released the 200 white prisoners they were holding; the last of the Pennsylvania Delaware left for Ohio
1771Delaware obtained permission from the Miami to settle in Indiana
1772Moravian missionaries  followed 400 of their Delaware converts to Ohio and built three missions along the Tuscarawas and Muskingum Rivers
1774Delaware chief Bald Eagle was ambushed by vigilantes, scalped, and his body placed upright in a sitting position in his canoe to float down the river to his tribesmen
1775Traditional Delaware had accepted the Moravian villages as equal members
1777Treaty at Fort Pitt between Delaware and United States
1779General John Sullivan's campaign against the Iroquois in which Munsee villages were also destroyed, and they retreated to southern Ontario; when the war ended, most stayed in Canada and did not return to the United States
1780Most of the Delaware had joined British Captain Pipe at Pluggys Town; the only neutral Delaware were the Moravians; Pennsylvania volunteers from Washington County, Pennsylvania commanded by Colonel David Williamson decided to execute the Moravian Delaware in two slaughter houses where  90 Christian Delaware - 29 men, 27 women, and 34 children - were taken inside in small groups and beaten to death with wooden mallets; Colonel William Crawford was burned at the stake to atone for the Gnadenhuetten Massacre
1783Delaware moved most of their villages in east-central Ohio to northwestern Ohio and southern Indiana; the British formed an alliance to keep the Americans out of Ohio including Delaware,  Miami, Wyandot, Iroquois, Kickapoo, Fox, Sauk, Shawnee, Ottawa, Ojibwe, Chickamauga (Cherokee), and Potawatomi
1784Some of the Delaware and Shawnee peace factions separated from the militants and moved to Ste. Genevieve, Missouri in Spanish Louisiana
1785Delaware, Ojibwe, Ottawa and Wyandot signed the Treaty of Fort McIntosh acknowledging American sovereignty in Ohio; Fort McIntosh Treaty did not receive the approval of the majority of the Delaware, and as a result, Captain Pipe was replaced by Big Cat; fighting resumed

Moravian Delaware left Ohio for southern Ontario

1793Baron de Carondelet, the Spanish governor of Louisiana, made a formal land grant (25 miles square) at Cape Girardeau to the Missouri Shawnee and Delaware
1795Fort Greenville Treaty ceded all of Ohio except the northwest corner and left the Delaware without land, with the exception of Captain Pipe's small band on the upper Sandusky; others relocated to present Muncie on Miami land
1803Delaware ceded part of their land in southern Indiana
1806Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee prophet, denounced all who disagreed with him as witches and began having them killed including a large number of Delaware, particularly Christian converts
1808William Anderson (Kecklawhenund) became Delaware chief and was opposed to Tecumseh and the Prophet
1813Moravians of the Thames village burned down by the American Army; Harrison moved the Delaware from Indiana to Piqua, Ohio
1814Delaware returned to Indiana from Piqua where they were joined by a group of Stockbridge from New York
1815Most of the Cape Girardeau Delaware and Shawnee (Absentee Delaware and Shawnee) had left for Texas where they were welcomed by Spanish government as a defense against Comanche raiders
1818St. Marys Treaty ceded their Indiana lands and they agreed to move west of the Mississippi
1822The Brothertons sold their remaining lands in New York and moved to a reservation established for the Oneida near Green Bay
1824Delaware hunting party was attacked by Osage in Missouri
1826Delaware and Kickapoo united against the Osage after a raid
1829Ohio Delaware ceded their reserve and agreed to join the Delaware west of the Mississippi; Delaware on the James Fork agree to exchange their Missouri lands for a new reserve in northeast Kansas just north of the Shawnee to find that much of the land belonged to the Pawnee
1831Delaware hunting party on the plains was attacked by Pawnee warriors
1832Pawnee attacked another Delaware hunting party killing a chief; the Delaware burned the main Pawnee village on the Republican River; Ohio Delaware joined the other Delaware in Kansas
1835Delaware hunting party killed 12 Pawnee they caught trying to steal their horses
1837Two groups of Moravian Munsee also left their reserve in southern Ontario and emigrated to Kansas; eighty-seven Delaware enlisted in the American army and served in the Seminole War
1841Delaware hunting party attacked: by Santee Sioux near Des Moines, Iowa
1843Sold some Kansas land to the Wyandot; Absentee Delaware (Red River Delaware) were moved to a reservation with the Caddo and Tonkawa on the upper Brazos River, Texas
1845Delaware hunting party attacked by Sioux and Cheyenne on the Smokey Hill River in Kansas
1850Delaware, Shawnee and Kickapoo oined the Potawatomi during a brief war between the emigrant tribes
1852Delaware hunting party attacked by Sioux on the upper Platte
1854Munsee chose to join the Swan Creek and Black River bands of the Ojibwe near Ottawa, Kansas
1856A separate reserve was created for the Stockbridge, Brotherton, and Munsee on land purchased from the Menominee in Wisconsin
1859Much of Ottawa, Kansas lands lost to allotment; many Muncee returned to Canada
1860Delaware signed the Treaty of Sarcoxieville agreeing to allot their remaining lands
1861170 of the 200 able-bodied Delaware men of military ages served in the Union Army, mainly in the 6th and 15th Kansas Volunteer Cavalry
1862Kansas Delaware and Shawnee attacked the Wichita Agency in southern Oklahoma which had been seized by the Confederates forcing the Tonkawa who lived there to return to Texas
1863Kansas legislature called for the removal of all Indians from Kansas
1866Delaware ceded their remaining lands and most removed to Oklahoma;
1867Cherokee sold Delaware Oklahoma land for $280,000 and Delaware would become part of the Cherokee Nation
1868Difficult move to Oklahoma, settled near old enemies the Osage and the Cherokee who fought on the side of the south in the Civil War
1895Curtis Act dissolved tribal governments
1907Delaware lands were allotted